News Article C
Boilers were built as early as the 1st century ad by Hero of Alexandria but were used only as toys. Not until the 17th century was serious consideration given to the potential of steam power for practical work. The first boiler with a safety valve was designed by Denis Papin of France in 1679; boilers were made and used in England by the turn of the 18th century. Early boilers were made of wrought iron; as the advantages of high pressure and temperature were realized, manufacturers turned to steel. Modern boilers are made of alloy steel to withstand high pressures and extremely high temperatures.